Artistic representation of the ancient calendar
Most popular for its ancient gold and buried treasures, dating from 4000 BC, Bulgaria became famous as the El Dorado for looters, collectors, archeologists and explorers.
For its 1400 years of statehood history and interesting geopolitical location, forming a strategic bridge between Asia and Europe, the ancient kingdom saw a long succession of invaders, conquerors, traders and settlers, who mingled with the ancient civilization and left their marks and artifacts for the future generation and the world to finally discover.
It is well known that very few civilizations in antiquity had created their own astronomical calendars. This is the main reason why ancient peoples like the Jews, the Greeks, the Romans and the Armenians used the calendars of older civilizations like the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Egyptians and the Persians.
Recently, a stunning discovery of the ancient Bulgarian calendar drew lots of attention to this unique creation of humankind, considered by UNESCO to be the most accurate calendar known to man.
Historians, archeologist, anthropologists began a serious decoding of the ancient calendar. Historian Prof. Jordan Vulev describes the ancient Bulgarian calendar as circular in shape; inside the circle are 12 constellations named after animals – a rooster, a dog, a boar, a mouse, a snow lion, a rabbit, a dragon, a snake, a horse, a sheep and a monkey.
According to scientists, the calendar was used to follow the movement of the Sun but most of all of Jupiter, which was venerated by the ancient Bulgarians and Sumerians. Yankul was the ancient name for Jupiter worshiped as the Master of time and depicted as a circle with three flames. The calendar also possesses ancient Bulgarian numerals. This is an extremely old system of counting and a very accurate way of rounding off numbers, which shows that ancient Bulgarians had a certain level of mathematical knowledge, supplementing their knowledge of astronomy, says prof. Vulev.
The fact that the ancient Bulgarian calendar was based on the Sun and Jupiter celestial movement and numeric system makes it extremely accurate, even more than the Mayan’s calendar. The historian continues to explore the subject and discovered that the number of counted days – 364 - in the ancient Bulgarian calendar is also the so called “Golden number” – it can be divided by 4 (the number of the seasons), by 13 (the number of weeks in each season) and by 52, the number of weeks in a year.
An article published by the Bulgarian National Radio describes the researchers deciphering efforts and explaines that according to the ancient calendar [t]he year consisted of 364 “counted” days and one “uncounted” or 365 days in all. The “uncounted” day was the day of the winter solstice – according to the Gregorian calendar it fell on December 22 – and was called by the Bulgarians “zero” day, or Eni, Sur, Young year, Surva year, Ignazhden – (the latter-day St. Ignatius’ day). These popular names all meant “the only, separate day, on which the new year begins”, and it was precisely December 22, the shortest day of the year, that the ancient Bulgarians considered to be the start of the new year, so it was not included in any month. Actually, the calendar includes one more “uncounted” day. It was called Behti, and was inserted once every 4 years in-between June 30 and July 1, after Midsummer Day, the day of the summer solstice, known as Enyovden or Eni Setem.]
In the ancient Bulgarian calendar, a year had 364 counted and one uncounted days – 365 in all. The leap year had 364 counted and 2 uncounted days – or 366 days. The counted days were distributed into 52 weeks of seven days each. Sunday was the first day of the week and Saturday – its end. The year was divided into 4 seasons (quarters) - each of them 91 days long or 13 weeks. The first of the three months always had 31 days, and the second and third – 30 days.
Interesting coincidence is the fact that the day Eni, the day of the year, that the ancient Bulgarians consider to be the beginning of the year or the new cycle, is very similar to the Sumerian deity responsible for the creation tale in the Sumerian ancient scripts ‘En.lil’, sometimes found as ‘Eni’ or ‘Enki’.
Also the Planet Nibiru, was often depicted with the symbol of a Sign of the Cross. The ancient Bulgarian calendar was shaped as a cross sign, which look like the much later Christian Maltese. Cross.
Nevertheless, the pronounced veneration of the Sun and Jupiter in all ancient civilizations is not a coincidence. Such clues regarding the orbital path of the Celestial Lord and its reappearance, sometimes using the constellations as a map, are also found in biblical passages, revealing a knowledge that must have been available to all civilizations on Earth: "In Jupiter will thy face be seen", states Psalm 17. "The Lord from the south shall come... his shining splendor will beam as light.", predicted prophet Habakkuk.